The (Roza) Fasts of Ramazan are Farz on every sane and adult Muslim, on both men and women, provided the lady is free of menses or postpartum blood. The person who denies the obligation of fasts is out of Islam (Kafir). The person who misses fasts without any valid reason is a big sinner.
Conditions for the fast to be Wajib:
- The following are the conditions for fast to be Wajib:Being a Muslim, being sane, being an adult, being healthy and being a “Muqeem” (Either being in one’s native place or being in a different place for more than 15 days. Even if somebody has the intention of staying in a place for more than 15 days, that person is considered Muqeem)
On children, fasts are not obligatory, but to habituate them, they should be made to fast as per their strength
The following are the conditions for the fast to be valid:
- Of a woman to be free of menses and postpartum blood. If the woman is any of these conditions, then her fast is not valid.
- Intention to fast. If someone does not eat or drink for the whole day, but there is no intention to fast, then it will not be considered a fast.
- Intention (Niyyah) is the name of a firm resolve. Speaking it out is not a condition. However, articulating as per the Niyyah in one’s heart is Mustahab (commendable). If the intention for fasting is made in the night, then the following words should be used:Transliteration: Nawaytu An Asauma Ghadal Lillahi Ta’ala Min Saumi Ramazan..
Transliteration: Nawaytu Bi Saumi Ghadin
Translation: I have made the intention that for the sake of Allah Ta’ala, I will keep a fast of Ramadhan tomorrow.
Or the smaller one:
Translation: I have made the Niyyah for tomorrow’s fast.
If the Niyyah is being made in the day, then the following words should be said:
Transliteration: Nawaytu An Asauma Li Hadhal Yaum
Translation: I am making the Niyyah for today’s fast.
There is no problem if the words “Insha Allah Ta’ala” are added as a form of blessing.
Having Sehri is also equal to intention, as Sehri is taken only with the intention of fasting. However, it will not be considered as a Niyyah if while having Sehri or after Sehri, one makes the intention of not fasting.
If someone makes the Niyyah in the heart while in Salaat, that Niyyah is also valid.
It is necessary to make a separate Niyyah for every fast in Ramadhan. One Niyyah for all the fasts is not correct.