The 10th of Muharram is called “A’ashoorah.” It is a Sunnah to fast on this day. In fact, the Jews also fast on this day. For this reason, to protect from having any resemblance to the Jews, the Holy Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم ) ordered the Ummah to fast on either 9th or 11th along with the 10th, as mentioned in a Hadith Zujajatul Masabeeh authored by Muhaddith-e-Deccan Abul Hasanaat Syed Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Qadri (May Allah shower His mercy on him) on the authority of Imam Tahawi (May Allah shower His mercy on him):
Translation: Hadhrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) narrates from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) about the 10th of Muharram that He (Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم )) said: You fast on A’ashoorah and fast on either the day preceding it or the day succeeding it and don’t resemble the Jews. (Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 572)
If anybody fasts on only the 10th of Muharram, then this fast will be valid but because of resemblance to the Jews, it will be undesirable (Makruh), as given in the explanatory notes of Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 572 and in Radd Ul Muhtaar, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 91
Spending more on the family on the 10th of Muharram
The Hadith mention much significance and excellence of increasing the spending on family members on the A’ashoorah i.e. the 10th of Muharram and spending freely on them on this day. Imam Baihaqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him) records in his Shu’abul Iman:
Translation: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Mas’ud (May Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Whoever spends freely on family members on the 10th of Muharram, Allah Ta’ala increases the sustenance of that person for the whole year. (Shu’abul Iman, Hadith No. 3626)
It is given in Mishkaatul Masabeeh, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 170 after the given Hadith:
Translation: Hadhrat Sufyan Thauri (May Allah be well pleased with him) says: We tried it and found it to be so. (Jame’ Ul Usool Min Ahadithir Rasul, Hadith No. 7263)
Hadhrat Ibn Abideen Shaami Naqshbandi (May Allah shower His mercy on him) writes in Radd Ul Muhtaar, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 123 on the authority of Hadhrat Jabir (May Allah be well pleased with him):
Translation: Hadhrat Jabir (May Allah be well pleased with him) says: I have tried it for 40 years and never found it to be against it. Always, there was an increase (in Rizq).
Increasing the expenditure when compared to usual times is a means of increasing the sustenance and blessings in it. In light of this, Muslims spend freely on this day on their family and dependents.
Special Salaat of A’ashoorah
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: The person who offers a Salaat of 4 Raka’at in such a way that he recites Surah Ikhlaas after Surah Fatiha in every Raka’at, then Allah Most High will forgive 50 years’ worth of sins and there will be pulpit of radiance (Noor) for him (or her) and if a person bathes on that day, then (excepting death) will not fall ill that year and if a person uses Surma that day, that person will not suffer from any eye ailment for the whole year as given in Nuzhatul Majalis.
Special Du’a of A’ashoorah
Transliterations: Ya Qabila Taubati Sayyidina Aadama Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Farrij Al Karbi Sayyidina Dhin Nooni Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Jami’a Shamli Sayyidina Ya’aqooba Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Sami’a Da’awati Sayyidina Moosa Wa Sayyidina Haroona Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Mugheetha Sayyidina Ibraheem Min Annaari Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Rafi’a Sayyidina Idreesa Ilas Samaae Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Mujeeb Ad Da’awati Sayyidina Salih Fin Naaqati Yauma A’ashoorah, Ya Nasira Sayyidina Wa Maulana Muhammadin Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Aalihee wa Sahbihee Wa Sallam Yauma A’ashoorah.
Ya Rahmanad Dunya Wal Aahirati Wa Raheemahumaa! Salli ‘Ala Sayyidina Muhammadinw Wa ‘Ala Aali Sayyidina Muhammadinw Wa Salli ‘Ala Jam’ee Il Ambiyai Wal Mursaleen.
Waqzi Haajatinaa Fid Dunya Wal Aakhirati Wa Atil ‘Umrana Fi Ta’atika Wa Mahabbatika Wa Razaka.
Wa Ahyayna Hayatan Tayyiba Wa Tawaffana ‘Alal Imani Wal Islam, Bi Rahmatika Ya Arhamar Rahimeen.
Allahumma Bi Hurmatil Hasani Wa Akheehi Wa Ummihee Wa Abeehi Wa Baneehi Farrij ‘Annaa Ma Nahnu Feehi.
Then recite 7 times:
Subhanallahi Mil Al Meezaani Wa Muntahal ‘Ilmi Wa Mablaghar Razaa Wa Zeenatil ‘Arshi La Maljaa Wa La Manjaa Min Allahi Illa Ilaihi.
Subhanallahi ‘Adadash Shaf’i Wal Watri Wa ‘Adada Kalimatillahit Taammaati Kullihaa Nas Alukas Salaamati Bi Rahmatika Ya Arhamar Rahimeen Wa Huwa Hasbunaa Wa Ni’mal Wakeel, Ni’mal Maula Wa Ni’man Naseer Wa La Haula Wa La Quwwata Illa Billahil ‘Aliyyil Azeem.
Wa Sallallahu Ta’ala ‘Ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Wa ‘Ala Aalihee Wa Sahbihee Wa ‘Alal Momineena Wal Mominaati Wal Muslimeena Wal Muslimaati ‘Adada Dharratil Wujudi Wa ‘Adada Ma’aloomatillah Wal Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil A’alameen.